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Стандарты женской красоты

Как менялся «милый идеал» на протяжении истории, и к чему прибегали женщины, чтобы соответствовать вызовам эпохи? 

Тело женщины всегда было объектом обсуждения в обществе, а изменчивые стандарты красоты в разные времена зависели от ряда причин: развития медицины и экономики или желания людей обогатиться на продаже бьюти-продуктов.


Начнём с истоков

Женщина была в первую очередь матерью, которая должна родить, как можно больше детей. Причина этому проста: в условиях существования лишь народной медицины смертность была ужасающей. Под особенным риском находились дети. Такая картина сделала главным идеалом женской красоты в каменном веке округлые, пухлые формы. Они были символом сытости и гарантией рождения здоровых детей. Венеры палеолита — пример привлекательных женщин того времени. Этот идеал создал традицию насильственного переедания, которая до сих пор сохранилась в африканской стране Мавритании: девушки и женщины там страдают от лишнего веса и диабета.

Венеры палеолита, встречаются главным образом в Европе.

Античный идеал

Статуи вновь дают учёным подсказку: на этот раз Афродита Милосская, вышедшая из-под рук Праксителя.

Венера Милосская
Древнегреческая скульптура, созданная в период эллинизма между 130 и 100 годами до н. э.

Гармония — вот главный ключ к красоте, считали древнегреческие философы. Привлекательной считалась в меру «мягкая», одновременно подтянутая женская фигура. Слово «идеал» в Греции понимали буквально и высчитывали пропорции тела по золотому сечению. Женщины того времени использовали много средств для ухода за кожей лица, в ход шло всё: от мыла из козьего жира до ослиного молока. «Красота тела – в симметрии частей, в хорошем цвете и физической добротности», — утверждал древнегреческий философ Хрисипп.

Модницы-египтянки


Стандарты красоты в Древнем Египте были похожи на современные: высокие и стройные брюнетки покоряли сердца мужчин. Главное внимание падало на лицо, оно должно было быть идеальным, поэтому египтянки использовали много косметики. Глаза подводили зелёной краской из углекислой меди, а зрачки расширяли с помощью сока белладонны — о его губительном влиянии на психику человека ещё не знали.

Над укладкой волос древнеегипетские женщины думали недолго: они просто сбривали свои локоны и надевали парики из овечьей шерсти. Растительность на теле тоже была не в почёте: египтянки использовали известную нам восковую депиляцию.


Средневековый переворот

Средние века — время христианских заповедей, отказа от косметики и от облегающих силуэтов в одежде. Быть выразительной и яркой было опасно для жизни, ведь девушку могли счесть за ведьму и расправиться с ней «по совести». Женщина того времени — это игрушка дьявола, которая только и хочет того, чтобы подтолкнуть мужчин на грех. Идеалом красоты была пресвятая Дева Мария.

Церковь запрещала пользоваться косметикой, но в то же время общество ждало от девушки, что кожа её лица будет безупречно ровной и светлой. По этой причине женщины прибегали к небезопасным методам: делали кровопускания, наносили на лицо белила, иногда смешанные с мышьяком, и наносили на лицо необычные смеси. Для того, чтобы сделать лоб более открытым красавицы удаляли первые ряды волос, «удлинение» шеи происходило примерно так же: волосы на затылке сбривались.


Что возродилось в эпоху Возрождения?

Ответ на этот вопрос: внимание к женскому телу. Церковный гнëт медленно утихает. Общество вновь восхищается здоровой полнотой, обращает внимание на мягкость черт и даже готово смотреть на распущенные волосы. Именно в золотистых и вьющихся локонах теперь заключается женская красота. Идеал того времени — Мадонна. От средневековья у дам осталась лишь любовь к высоким лбам и отсутствию бровей.


Чопорный барокко


Стандарты красоты XVII века можно описать тремя словами: парадность, золото и пышность. Объемные рукава и юбки контрастировали с узкими талиями: женщины использовали корсеты. От этого пострадали даже маленькие девочки — есть случаи сломанных при перетяжке тела рëбер. В эту эпоху женщины стали кокетливее, декольте более открытыми, а в руках у красавиц оказались веера и маски.
Свинцовые белила всё так же не теряют своей популярности. Косметические средства часто содержат в себе ртуть и свинец, которые «убивают» красоту женщин в самом юном возрасте.

Передышка


В XVIII веке девушки буквально смогли вздохнуть полной грудью — корсет пропал из гардероба модниц. На это их подтолкнуло вдохновение античными образами. Но XIX век вернул себе право распоряжаться женскими талиями и увеличилось количество смертей от стальных прутьев корсетов.
Обнажённые плечи и высокие причёски показывают шеи, а платья становятся короче и немного открывают ноги. В это же время в моду входят женственные формы: грудь поднимается высоко, а сзади талии подкладывается небольшая подушечка — турнюр.

Турнюр.

Стремительные изменения


Уже в 1920-х годах из-за Первой мировой войны женщины хотят чего-то нового: больше они не борются за стереотипно женственную внешностью, в моду входят девушки-флэпперы. Короткая стрижка, маленькая грудь и полное отсутствие корсетов дали девушкам больше свободы. Вместе с плюсами пришли и минусы: одержимость худобой приводит к большому количеству женщин с РПП.

Девушки-флэпперы.

Новый виток истории и новые идеалы — в 1930-1850-х в моду вновь входит женственный силуэт, девушки полнеют и обзаводятся формами. Идеалами того времени были Мерлин Монро и Бриджит Бардо, обладательницы тонких талий и широких бёдер.
Мир трясёт, девушки выступают за свою независимость и вырывают свои права из мужских рук. Худоба снова в моде, на пьедестал идеала встаёт британская супермодель Твигги — невероятно худая девушка. Пищевые расстройства вновь атакуют женщин по всему миру, к 1970-м ситуация лишь ухудшается. В это же время наступает расцвет андрогинности и броских аксессуаров. Одновременно с этим существует движение хиппи — людей, которые живут в согласии с природой.

Твигги — британская супермодель, актриса и певица.

1980-е — это эпоха яркости и диско. Спортивная одежда от популярных брендов становится модной и среди женщин. Идеал девушки того времени тоже изменился: худоба сменилась на подтянутую стройность, а загар стал признаком успешной жизни. Типичный образ девушки, которая занимается аэробикой дома у телевизора не обманчив — в 80-х культ спортивного тела мучал почти каждую.

Но женщины вновь начинают худеть. В моду входит героиновый шик, а худощавые модели встают на пьедестал. Бледная кожа, изможденный вид и булимия — атрибуты красивой женщины 90-х. Идеал того времени — Кейт Мосс.

Кейт Мосс — британская супермодель и актриса. 

Новый скачок в спорт, и в моду входит загар, здоровый вид и фигура песочные часы. Популярность смуглой кожи объясняется уже не богатством и процветанием её обладательниц, а появлением темнокожих певиц Дженифер Лопес и Кристины Агилеры. Популярными остаются пухлые губы, большие глаза.

Дженнифер Лопес, 1995

К чему мы пришли?


Сейчас мир постепенно приходит к выводу о том, что красота – это не выверенные черты лица и тела, а что-то большее: харизма, индивидуальность, необычность. Наступила эпоха новой искренности и принятия: бренды создают рекламные кампании с разными типами женских фигур. Хотя нельзя сказать, что мир окончательно стал толерантным, он точно делает шаги навстречу этому.

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