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Проблема с запоминанием информации: несколько эффективных способов

Вечер перед контрольной по физике. Я перечитываю тему пятый раз, а запомнить не могу. Определения и формулы путаются в голове, не могу пересказать и половины параграфа. Я не теряю последнюю надежду, что утром все вспомню, но этого не происходит. В итоге за контрольную получаю тройку, которая портит все оценки.  Сейчас уже я разобралась, как эффективнее запоминать информацию или сложные темы по той же физике, поэтому делюсь с вами!

Перечитывание информации и пометки текстовыделителями — одни из самых неэффективных способов запоминания информации, это выяснил профессор Кентского университета Джон Данлоски вместе с четырьмя коллегами.  

Источник: Youtube-канал Tanya Boguslavskaya

Если нужно выучить все темы для контрольной за вечер, не пытайся перечитать учебник три раза и запомнить нужное (хотя готовиться к тестированию за день вообще не рекомендуется, но об этом позже). Этот способ наиболее распространен (около 80% учащихся используют его), но не очень действенен- информация остается в краткосрочной памяти. Создается ложное ощущение, будто тема выучена, но на самом деле мы просто узнали ее (как узнаем из десяти других номер подруги, но наизусть не помним его). 

С текстовыделителями похожая ситуация- часто мы выделяем информацию, которую никогда не встречали раньше, не зная структуру текста. Именно из-за этого можем упустить детали или выделить все подряд, что нам не пригодится. 

Какие способы тогда использовать? 

Наиболее эффективный- активное воспроизведение информации из памяти. То есть проверка, насколько тема запомнилась. Например, прочитать параграф и ответить на вопросы после него; изучить тему по математике и решать задачи, пока не получится правильный ответ. Также хорошо помогает использование флэш-карточек (на одной стороне кусочка бумаги пишем вопрос, а на другой- ответ). 

Источник: Youtube-канал Tanya Boguslavskaya

Главное — сделать это сразу после изучения темы. Не бойтесь ошибаться. Тестирование поможет понять, что нужно подучить (кстати, тест можно пройти или создать свой в приложении Quizlet). 

Можно составить интеллект-карту (оригинальное название: mind-карты). Их можно использовать как вариант конспектирования или же просто для усвоения новой темы. 

Источник: Pinterest-аккаунт @0nly1maya

В чем суть? Интеллект-карты помогают разложить информацию в памяти по полочкам, запоминая ее в процессе составления. Выглядят эти карты как центр (кружок) с основой всей информации, от которого идут ответвления с подпунктами, вариантами определений, примерами. При этом от каждого пункта можно “вырастить” столько веточек, сколько хочется.

Источник: Youtube-канал Tanya Boguslavskaya

Как действовать? Первым делом пробегаемся глазами по нужной информации, накидываем “скелет” карты (определив, что будет центром и сколько нужно веток) без подглядывания в учебник (это важно!). Затем добавляем еще ответвления, с учебником пишем более подробные пункты (главное- не терминами, а своими словами). 

Источник: Instagram-аккаунт @alex_skrebcova

Вот некоторые примеры использования интеллект-карт: группировка иностранных слов по темам (приветствия, части тела); веточки с аргументами для эссе/сочинения (так не забудешь второй пример, пока пишешь первый); стрелочки для каждого героя в произведении (связи с другими персонажами, черты характера, действия в книге) для подготовки к экзамену по литературе (или к любому другому). 

Карты можно составлять как от руки, так и на телефоне/компьютере. Приложения для интеллект-карт: Xmind, Xmind Zen, Coggle, Mindmeister. 

Источник: Youtube-канал Tanya Boguslavskaya

Важно не перегружать себя и свой мозг. Поэтому не зубри весь материал за вечер, а используй способ повторения темы, когда её составляющие распределяются по дням. Это помогает отложить информацию в долгосрочной памяти. Исследования показали, что при таком повторении студенты добиваются лучших результатов, чем при массированном запоминании (зубрежка за вечер). Даже если в сумме потратить меньше времени (по часу каждый день недели, а не один целый день), информация запомнится лучше. При таком способе даже иностранные слова, которые мы учим на английском, а через месяц можем не вспомнить, останутся в нашей памяти. 

Источник: Pinterest-аккаунт @peachyNini

Даже сложные темы можно выучить, нужно только разобраться, какой способ запоминания наиболее эффективен для тебя. Используй эти лайфхаки и запоминай темы быстрее. Не перегружай себя, ведь здоровье превыше всего! 

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